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AutoCAD [Win/Mac]

AutoCAD’s roots can be traced to the early 1970s, when they were a part of AutoLISP, which used a hybrid of programming language and interactive graphics that was influenced by Dartmouth’s graphics language. AutoLISP was originally used for real-time graphics on multi-processor computers.

The name AutoCAD comes from the program’s original use to create detailed technical drawings from the initial planning stage of a project through final production of the final paper plan. AutoCAD lets users draw 2D and 3D objects, add labels and technical annotations, view plans, and manage files. A key feature of AutoCAD is its ability to output a range of related files, such as DWG (drawn works) files, DGN (drawn graphics) files, DXF (drawing exchange format) files, etc.

Some of the most important features of AutoCAD are listed here:


2D and 3D drawings can be created in either 2D or 3D. The system supports both 2D and 3D line objects, arcs and ellipses, and polyline and polygonal 2D and 3D objects. Objects can be inserted, deleted, moved, rotated, or scaled. Advanced techniques are used to make editing and object orientation easy, even for the non-technical user.

Tools include the Extensible Graphics Language (XG language) for adding labels and annotations to the drawings, 3D modeling tools, features for creating plans, and functions for preparing drawings for printing.

Pre-defined functions for creating layers, drawing multiple views of a single 3D object, and generating color prints are also provided. The CAD system is scalable to fit the needs of a wide variety of users from small home or office users to large firms.

Part of the design process is the “storyboard” that starts with an idea, continues to a preliminary analysis, and ultimately to the final design. Using this approach, CAD users can work on a broad spectrum of problems that range from generating quick drawings of parts to a full-scale project that requires many iterations and revisions.

Adobe Illustrator and CorelDraw are the only other CAD programs currently that can generate DWG and DXF files. CAD functions include:

Modeling. 3D modeling includes the ability to create 2D from 3D models and to model 3D from 2D drawings. Using either of these techniques, 3D objects can be created

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Surface styles and media

The following surface styles are available to be applied to AutoCAD drawings:

No surface
Patterned surface

The following media are available to be applied to AutoCAD drawings:

Black and White
Gray and White

AutoCAD helps with layout, geometric, and drafting automation.


The AutoLISP language is used by the AutoCAD Architecture and Electrical families. The AutoCAD Architecture (A) Family is primarily oriented towards creating architectural and industrial designs while the Electrical (E) Family is more towards creating electrical designs.

The AutoLISP language is similar to MATLAB or Simulink in that it is a language to define functions, statements, loops, expressions, and control flow. The language itself can be considered a high-level language as it is more useful for the creation of tools and applications, than it is for writing code directly for the AutoCAD platform.

Visual LISP
The Visual LISP language is used by the AutoCAD Electrical family. It provides additional capabilities compared to the AutoLISP language. The visual lisp environment allows for coding on graphics tablets and touch devices.

Most major manufacturers of CAD software such as Autodesk, Cadence Design Systems, Trimble, and other third party CAD software providers support Visual LISP.

The AutoCAD VBA language allows customization of the AutoCAD application.

.NET and ObjectARX
The.NET language and ObjectARX are used by the third-party Autodesk-based applications to programmably work with the AutoCAD drawing in a similar way as VBA.

AutoCAD Exchange

Exchange files are supported by the.NET programming language, and can be placed in the “Active Exchange Files” directory on the AutoCAD computer.

Drawing exchange format (.DXF)

This is the native file format of AutoCAD. It is used to import and export drawings for AutoCAD using the DAT file extension. Most of the features found in AutoCAD can be applied to AutoCAD through DXF files. AutoCAD can create DXF files from other file types such as: CAD,

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Copy the rar file into your Autodesk directory.
Double-click on rar file and open the Autocad.exe.

Run the Autocad.exe and create a new Project.

Press “Build from Scratch”

Once the project is created, make sure that the Project Owner is set to “admin”.


Category:Free and open-source softwareRetinal circulation time in polycythemia vera.
To evaluate retinal circulation time (RCT) in polycythemia vera (PV) patients with or without retinal capillary non-perfusion. Retrospective study. Polycythemia vera patients who had been examined with fluorescein angiography (FA) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) at our clinic between September 2011 and October 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Eighteen eyes of 18 consecutive PV patients were included in the study. The control group consisted of 30 eyes of 30 consecutive age- and gender-matched patients who had been referred to our clinic and underwent FA and ICGA to evaluate the suspicion of non-perfused retinal capillary areas. In the PV group, RCT was significantly longer (P=0.049) than the control group (176±54 s vs. 141±41 s, respectively). Among the PV group, RCT was significantly longer in patients with than without retinal capillary non-perfusion (P=0.014). The proportion of patients with both RCT longer than 200 s was significantly higher in the PV group than in the control group (11/18 vs. 3/30, respectively, P=0.003). RCT is significantly longer in PV patients than in healthy subjects. Moreover, PV patients with retinal capillary non-perfusion are more likely to have longer RCTs than those without retinal capillary non-perfusion.

What’s New in the AutoCAD?

Preventing repetitive errors:

Automatically provide consistent options for business-critical functions, such as insertion, parallel and perpendicular, right-angle and straightedge, and text styles. (video: 2:32 min.)

Drawing panels:

Extend your drawing canvas by adding panels to your drawings, dynamically resize them when you need more or less space, or group and move them together in order to create different drawing areas. (video: 1:22 min.)

Upside-down autocad:

View your drawing as if you are looking through a window. Manipulate your drawings intuitively and seamlessly, no matter how many layers your drawings contain. (video: 2:03 min.)

Drawing templates:

Start your design with base templates that already contain the preferred options you want to keep constant for your drawings. (video: 1:27 min.)

Simplifying your workflow:

Replace repetitive drawing steps and ambiguous commands with smart shortcuts that are available whenever you need them. (video: 1:09 min.)

Integrating new technologies:

Extend your drawing set with additional tools and see the value of your drawings and the work they help you do. (video: 2:00 min.)

Filtering or navigating drawing content:

Reveal all parts of a drawing that are visible or selected with a single command. Quickly find objects within a large file and work with only the objects you want to edit. (video: 1:49 min.)


Get email and text notifications when the status of a job, such as a print, is changed. (video: 1:22 min.)

Reading and writing files:

Transform your drawings and your working environment. Interpret, merge and split your drawings based on the markup, use your drawings for presentations or computer aided design, and share your drawings in a format that suits your needs. (video: 2:06 min.)

Extension with the command-line:

Bring the power of the command line to AutoCAD with the command-line extensions in AutoCAD 2023. (video: 1:23 min.)

Integrating cross-platform:

Open a drawing in AutoCAD from your preferred IDE and place it as a background image in Windows. (video: 1:30 min.)

System Requirements For AutoCAD:

Windows 7 / 8
Minimum resolution: 800 x 600
Processor: 1.5 GHz
Video: NVIDIA GeForce GTX 660 or AMD Radeon HD 7870
Hard Drive: 5 GB free space
Supported languages: English, French, German, Polish, Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, Swedish
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